Struktur Kecepatan Seismik di Bawah Gunung Merapi dan Sekitarnya Berdasarkan Studi Tomografi Seismik Waktu Tempuh

Mohamad Ramdhan, Said Kristyawan, Andry Syaly Sembiring, D Daryono, P Priyobudi

Abstract


Periode erupsi Gunung Merapi yang relatif pendek menjadi penyebab banyaknya ahli ilmu kebumian meneliti proses yang terjadi, baik di bawah permukaan maupun di bagian puncak gunung api tersebut. Jaringan seismik DOMERAPI yang terdiri dari 53 stasiun seismik digunakan  untuk memahami karakteristik reservoir magma utama di bawah Gunung Merapi  dengan periode perekaman data dari bulan Oktober 2013 sampai pertengahan bulan April 2015. Sejumlah 464 gempa berhasil dideteksi oleh jaringan seismik DOMERAPI dengan mayoritas gempanya berada di luar jaringan seismik tersebut karena Gunung Merapi pada saat itu  berada dalam keadaan tidak aktif. Gempa-gempa yang berada di luar jaringan seimik tersebut digunakan untuk mendeliniasi reservoir magma utama di bawah Gunung Merapi. Reservoir magma utama di bawah Gunung Merapi teridentifikasi pada kedalaman sekitar 15 km di bawah permukaan laut (MSL) yang dicirikan dengan Vp dan rasio Vp/Vs yang tinggi serta Vs yang rendah. Keberadaan reservoir magma dangkal yang berkaitan dengan fluid percolation juga teridentifikasi dengan jelas pada studi ini yang berada pada kedalaman kurang dari 5 km di bawah MSL yang dicirikan dengan Vp yang rendah, rasio Vp/Vs yang tinggi dan Vs yang rendah. Adapun keberadaan reservoir magma dalam Gunung Merapi tidak berhasil diidentifikasi pada studi ini karena keterbatasan resolusi data seismik.

The relatively short eruption period of Merapi volcano is the reason for many earth scientists to investigate the processes that occur both beneath the surface and at the top of the volcano. The DOMERAPI seismic network consisting of 53 seismic stations was installed to understand the characteristics of the main magma reservoir under the volcano with a period of data recording from October 2013 to mid-April 2015. A total of 464 earthquakes were detected by DOMERAPI seismic network with the majority of the earthquake occured outside the seismic network because the volcano was inactive at that time. The earthquakes are used to delineate the main magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The main magma reservoir was identified at a depth of 15 km below mean sea level (MSL,) which is characterized by high Vp, a high Vp/Vs ratio and low Vs. The existence of shallow magma reservoirs related to fluid percolation was also clearly identified in this study which was at a depth of less than 5 km below MSL which was characterized by low Vp, a high Vp/Vs ratio and low Vs. The existence of deep magma reservoir was not identified in this study because of the limited resolution of seismic data.


Keywords


Merapi, DOMERAPI, magma, reservoir, Vp, rasio Vp/Vs, Vs

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/risetgeotam2019.v29.1047

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