Wahyu Dwijo Santoso


Biofacies concept was proposed to approach the carbonate facies determination by using coral species description and ecology reconstruction. Ujunggenteng area was selected for this study because it has modern carbonate rocks with continues distribution and contains many well-preserved coral fossils. Ujunggenteng area can be distinguished into three biofacies: Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera biofacies, Acropora gemmifera – Acropora humilis biofacies, and Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palmata biofacies. The paleobathymetry analysis had indicated that Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera biofacies grew in the deepest environment, between 8 – 13 meters depth. Acropora gemmiferaAcropora humilis biofacies lived in a shallower environment between 3 – 8 meters depth, and Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palmata biofacies was deposited between 0 – 3 meters. The Mg/Ca trend showed a negative correlation with the paleobathymetry result. Decreasing Mg/Ca ratio was related to increasing paleobathymetry. Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera biofacies has the smallest Mg/Ca ratio, between 14 – 15 mmol. Acropora gemmifera – Acropora humilis biofacies has Mg/Ca ratio between 17 – 21 mmol.  Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palmata biofacies has the highest Mg/Ca ratio, between 23 – 24 mmol. Mg/Ca ratio value was related to paleotemperature, in which the decreasing of Mg/Ca ratio associated to decreasing paleotemperature.

Konsep biofasies dipilih dan diajukan sebagai salah satu pendekatan untuk penentuan fasies karbonat. Daerah Ujunggenteng dipilih untuk studi ini karena daerah ini menunjukkan perkembangan batuan karbonat yang menerus dan fosil koral yang terawetkan dengan baik. Daerah Ujunggenteng dapat dibagi menjadi tiga biofasies, yaitu biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera, biofasies Acropora gemmifera – Acropora humilis biofacies, dan biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palmata. Analisis paleobatimetri menunjukkan bahwa biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera tumbuh di lingkungan yang paling dalam, yaitu 8 – 13 meter. Biofasies Acropora gemmifera – Acropora humilis hidup di lingkungan yang lebih dangkal, yaitu 3 – 8 meter, dan biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palmata terendapkan di lingkungan yang lebih dangkal, yaitu 0 – 3 meter. Analisis kadar Mg/Ca menunjukkan nilai yang berlawanan dengan paleobatimetri. Penurunan kadar Mg/Ca memiliki hubungan dengan peningkatan paleobatimetri. Biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera memiliki nilai kadar Mg/Ca paling rendah, yaitu 14 – 15 mmol. Biofasies Acropora gemmifera – Acropora humilis memiliki kadar Mg/Ca yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palifera, yaitu 17 – 21 mmol. Biofasies Acropora cervicornis – Acropora palmata menunjukkan nilai kadar Mg/Ca yang paling tinggi, yaitu 23 – 24 mmol. Kadar Mg/Ca memiliki hubungan dengan perubahan paleotemperatur. Penurunan kadar Mg/Ca berasosiasi dengan penurunan paleotemperatur.


Acropora, Biofacies, Mg/Ca ratio, Paleobathimetry, Paleoecology,

Full Text:



Aronson, R. B., 2007. Geological approaches to coral reef ecology, Springer-Verlag New York, 444pp.

Camoin, G. F., and Montaggioni, L. F., 1994. High energy coralgal stromatolite frameworks from Holocene reefs (Tahiti, French Polynesia). Sedimentology 41, 655-676.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.1994.tb01416.x

Dunham, R. J., 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Ham, W.E. (ed), Classification of carbonate rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologist Memoir 1, pp.108 – 121.

Eipsten, S., Buchsbaum, B., Lowenstam, H.A., and Urey, H.C., 1953. Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale, Buletin of Geological Society of America 64, 1315 – 1329.

DOI: 10.1130/0016-7606(1953)64[1315:RCITS]2.0.CO;2

Embry, A. F. and Klovan, J. E., 1971. A Late Devonian reef tract on Northeastern Banks Island, Canadian Petroleum Geology Bulletin 19, 730-781.

Fallon, S. J., McCulloch, M. T., van Woesik, R., and Sinclair, D. J., 1999. Corals at their latitudinal limits: Laser ablation trace element systematics in Porites from Shirigai Bay, Japan. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 172, 221–238. DOI: 10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00200-9

Gabioch, G., Montaggion, L. F., Faure, G., and Ribaud – Laurenti, A., 1999. Reef coralgal assemblages as recorders of paleobathymetry and sea level changes in the Indo-Pacific Province, Quaternary Science Reviews 18, 1681 – 1695. DOI: 10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00014-1

Glynn, P. W., 1984. Widespread coral mortality and the 1982-83 El Niño warming event. Environmental Conservation 11(2), 133-146. DOI: 10.1017/S0376892900013825

Goreau, T. F. and Wells, J. W., 1967. The shallow-water Scleractinia of Jamaica: Revised list of species and their vertical distribution range, Bulletin of Marine Science 17, 442 – 453.

Hernandez-Delgado, E. A., Huthinson-Delgado, Y. M., Laureano, R., Hernandez-Pacheco, R., Maldonado, T. R. M., Oms, J., and Diaz, P.L., 2010. Sediment stress, water turbidity, and sewage impacts on threatened elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) stands at Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, Proceedings of the 63rd Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

James, N. P. dan Bourque, P. A., 1992. Reefs and mounds. In: Walker, R. G. & James, N. P. (eds), Facies Models Response to Sea Level Change. Geological Association Canada, pp. 223 – 247.

Jordan, C. F., 1985. Classification of carbonate rocks and sample logging for carbonate lithofacies, In: Jordan, F. (ed), Carbonate seminar for Maxus Southeast Sumatera, Maxus, Indonesia, pp. 242.

Mitsuguchi, T., Matsumoto E., Abe O., Uchida T., and Isdale P. J., 1996. Mg/Ca thermometry in coral skeletons. Science 274, 961– 963. DOI: 10.1126/science.274.5289.961

Mukti, M. M., Siregar, M. S, Praptisih, Supriatna, N., 2005. Carbonate depositional environment and platform morphology of the Wonosari Formation in the area East of Pacitan. Jurnal Riset Geologi dan Pertambangan 15 (2), 29 -38. DOI: 10.14203/risetgeotam2005.v15.193

Pandolfi, J. and Jackson, J. B. C., 2006. Ecological persistence interrupted in Caribbean coral reefs. Ecology Letters, 818 – 826. DOI:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00933.x

Premonowati, 2012. Allostratigraphy of Punung Paleoreef based on lithofacies distributions, Jlubang Area, Pacitan Region-East Java, Indonesian Journal of Geology 7 (2), 113 – 122. DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i2.140

Santoso, W. D., 2015. Paleontology study of branching coral from Acropora genus in Ujunggenteng area, Sukabumi District, West Java, Master of Science Thesis, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Unpublished (Text in Indonesia).

Sayani, R. S., Cobb, K. M., Cohen, A. M., Elliott, W. E., Nurhati, I. S., Dunbar, R. B., Rose, K. A., dan Zaunbrecher, L. K., 2011. Effects of diagenesis on paleoclimate reconstructions from modern and young fossil corals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 6361 – 6373. DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2011.08.026

Sinclair D. J., Kinsley L. P. J., and McCulloch M. T., 1998. High resolution analysis of trace elements in corals by laser ablation ICP-MS. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62, 1889–1901. DOI: 10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00112-4

Siregar, M. S. and Praptisih, 2008. Facies and depositional environment Campurdarat Formation in Trenggalek Area - Tulungagung, East Java, Jurnal Riset Geologi dan Pertambangan 18 (1), 36 – 46.

Van der Meij, S. C. E. T., and Visser, R. R., 2011. The Acropora humilis Group (Scleractinia) of The Sneliius Expedition (1929 – 30). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59 (1), 9-17.

Veron, J. E. N., and Wallace, C. C., 1984. Scleractinia of Eastern Australia. Part 5. Acroporidae. Aust. Institute of Mar. Sci. Monogr. Ser., 6, 485 pp.

Vielzeuf, D., Garrabou, J., Gagnon, A., Ricolleau, A., Adkins, J., Günther, D., Hametner, K., Devidal, J. L., Reusser, E., Perrin, J., and Floquet, N., 2013. Distribution of sulphur and magnesium in the red coral. Chemical Geology 355, 13-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.07.008

Wallace, C. C., 1999. Staghorn Corals of the worlds: A Revision of The Genus Acropora, worldwide, with emphasis on morphology, phylogeny and biogeography. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.

Wallace, C. C., 1978. The coral genus Acropora (Scleractinia: Astrocoeniina; Acroporidae) in the central and southern Great Barrier Reef, Mem. Qd. Mus., 18, 273-319.

Wallace, C. C., and Dai, C. F., 1997. Scleractinia in Taiwan (IV), Review of the coral genus Acropora from Taiwan. Zoological Studies 36 (4), 288 – 324.

Wells, J. W., 1956. Scleractinia, In: R Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F. Coelenterata. Lawrence, Kansas: Geol. Soc. Am. & Univ. Kansas Press.

Wilson, J. L., 1975. Carbonate facies in geologic history, Springer Verlag.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 RISET Geologi dan Pertambangan

Copyright of Journal RISET Geologi dan  Pertambangan (e-ISSN 2354-6638 p-ISSN 0125-9849). Powered by OJS


Indexed by:




Plagiarism checker: